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Busby v. Stoddard

United States District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division

February 27, 2015



Sean F. Cox U.S. District Judge

Petitioner Michael Randolph Busby, Jr., is a state prisoner currently confined at the Carson City Correctional Facility in Carson City, Michigan. He recently filed a pro se habeas corpus petition challenging his state convictions for: carjacking, Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.529a; first-degree home invasion, Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.110a(2); unarmed robbery, Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.530; unlawful imprisonment, Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.349b; and stealing a financial transaction device, Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.157n. He alleges that a police officer illegally searched his cellular phone and that the state trial court relied on inaccurate information when scoring the sentencing guidelines. Neither one of these claims is cognizable on habeas corpus review. The Court therefore will summarily dismiss the petition.

I. Background

Petitioner was convicted of the crimes listed above in 2011, following a jury trial in Oakland County Circuit Court. The state trial court sentenced Petitioner as a habitual offender to: thirty to sixty years in prison for the carjacking; ten to thirty years in prison for the home invasion, unarmed robbery, and unlawful imprisonment; and two to fifteen years in prison for stealing a financial transaction device. The Michigan Court of Appeals affirmed Petitioner’s convictions in an unpublished decision, see People v. Busby, No. 305055, 2012 WL 6720592 (Mich. Ct. App. Dec. 27, 2012), and on October 28, 2013, the Michigan Supreme Court denied leave to appeal because it was not persuaded the review the issues. See People v. Busby, 495 Mich. 880; 838 N.W.2d 698 (2013). On January 8, 2015, Petitioner filed his habeas corpus petition in this Court.

II. Analysis

A. The Search of Petitioner’s Cell Phone

Petitioner alleges that the police illegally searched his cellular telephone without a warrant. Petitioner asserts that the illegal search led to his arrest and that the fruits of the search should have been suppressed rather than used at trial to persuade the jury to convict him.

Petitioner brings his claim under the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Supreme Court, however, has held that, “where the State has provided an opportunity for full and fair litigation of a Fourth Amendment claim, a state prisoner may not be granted federal habeas corpus relief on the ground that evidence obtained in an unconstitutional search or seizure was introduced at his trial.” Stone v. Powell, 428 U.S. 465, 494 (1976) (internal footnote omitted). “This prohibition on federal habeas review of exclusionary rule claims applies . . . to prisoners who received ‘the opportunity for full and fair consideration’ of their claims in state court.” Good v. Berghuis, 729 F.3d 636, 637-38 (6th Cir. 2013), cert. denied, No. 14-6114, 2015 WL 303260 (U.S. Jan. 26, 2015). “[T]he Powell ‘opportunity for full and fair consideration’ means an available avenue for the prisoner to present his claim to the state courts, not an inquiry into the adequacy of the procedure actually used to resolve that particular claim.” Id. at 639.

In Michigan, defendants in criminal cases may challenge the legality of searches and seizures in a motion to suppress evidence, which may be brought before or during trial. People v. Ferguson, 376 Mich. 90, 93-95; 135 N.W.2d 357, 358-59 (1965). Petitioner raised his Fourth Amendment claim in a pretrial motion to suppress evidence. The state trial court held an evidentiary hearing on the motion and denied it. Petitioner also raised his Fourth Amendment claim in the Michigan Court of Appeals, which thoroughly addressed the issue on direct appeal. “That suffices to preclude review of the claim through a habeas corpus petition under Stone v. Powell.Good, 729 F.3d at 640; see also Rashad v. Lafler, 675 F.3d 564, 570 (6th Cir. 2012) (stating that, because the petitioner had ample opportunities to present his Fourth Amendment claims in state court, and because the state trial court and the Michigan Court of Appeals rejected the claims, he was precluded from obtaining habeas relief.

In this case, moreover, the Michigan Court of Appeals determined that the disputed search was proper because it was incident to a lawful arrest and because it fell within the scope of Petitioner’s initial consent to be searched by an officer. The Court of Appeals also determined that, even if constitutional error occurred, the error was harmless because a rational jury would have found Petitioner guilty without the disputed evidence. In reaching this conclusion, the Court of Appeals pointed out that

[Petitioner’s] fingerprints were found on a chair propped up against an open window on the outside of the victim’s house, [he] was stopped near the victim’s stolen car, [he] made incredible statements to the police, and [he] was wearing clothing that was consistent with the clothing worn by the suspect captured on an automated teller machine surveillance recording withdrawing funds from the victim’s bank account.

Busby, 2012 WL 6720592, at *3.

Petitioner had an opportunity for full and fair consideration of his claim in state court. This Court therefore declines to address the merits of his Fourth Amendment claim. The claim is barred from substantive ...

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