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Eidam v. Behnke

United States District Court, W.D. Michigan, Southern Division

May 30, 2019

JASON EIDAM, Plaintiff,
v.
RICHARD BEHNKE et al., Defendants.

          OPINION

          Janet T. Neff, United States District Judge

         This is a civil rights action brought by a county jail inmate under 42 U.S.C. § 1983. Under the Prison Litigation Reform Act, Pub. L. No. 104-134, 110 Stat. 1321 (1996) (PLRA), the Court is required to dismiss any prisoner action brought under federal law if the complaint is frivolous, malicious, fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, or seeks monetary relief from a defendant immune from such relief. 28 U.S.C. §§ 1915(e)(2), 1915A; 42 U.S.C. § 1997e(c). The Court must read Plaintiff's pro se complaint indulgently, see Haines v. Kerner, 404 U.S. 519, 520 (1972), and accept Plaintiff's allegations as true, unless they are clearly irrational or wholly incredible. Denton v. Hernandez, 504 U.S. 25, 33 (1992). Applying these standards, the Court will dismiss Plaintiff's complaint for failure to state a claim.

         Discussion

         I. Factual allegations

         Plaintiff is presently serving a sentence in the Cass County Jail. Based on the records of the Cass County Circuit Court, it appears he is jailed following his guilty plea to one count of receiving and concealing stolen property. He sues Cass County Sheriff Richard Behnke, Sergeant Tim Smith, and Cass County.

         Plaintiff alleges that during the first several months of his stay at the jail he was employed as an inmate worker. He claims that, because of his work, he was entitled to a 31-day sentence reduction.

         Plaintiff claims that Defendant Smith threatened to fire him several times. On March 17, 2019, Smith actually fired Plaintiff for allegedly passing a note. Plaintiff denies that he passed a note. Plaintiff was removed from inmate worker status, moved to a non-worker dormitory, and was informed that he had forfeited the 31-day reduction of his sentence. Plaintiff claims it is Sheriff Behnke's rule that such forfeitures occur without a hearing.

         Plaintiff contends that the loss of his 31-day sentence reduction without a hearing violated his constitutional rights. He notes further that he has attempted to conduct legal research to support his claim, but that his requests to access legal research materials have been denied.

         Plaintiff asks the Court to order Defendants to restore Plaintiff's inmate worker status and the corresponding 31-day sentence reduction. He also asks the Court to order Defendants to create a law library or provide inmates access to an online legal research resource. Finally, Plaintiff seeks $166, 500.00 in compensatory and punitive damages.

         II. Failure to state a claim

         A complaint may be dismissed for failure to state a claim if it fails “‘to give the defendant fair notice of what the . . . claim is and the grounds upon which it rests.'” Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007) (quoting Conley v. Gibson, 355 U.S. 41, 47 (1957)). While a complaint need not contain detailed factual allegations, a plaintiff's allegations must include more than labels and conclusions. Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555; Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009) (“Threadbare recitals of the elements of a cause of action, supported by mere conclusory statements, do not suffice.”). The court must determine whether the complaint contains “enough facts to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face.” Twombly, 550 U.S. at 570. “A claim has facial plausibility when the plaintiff pleads factual content that allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged.” Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 679. Although the plausibility standard is not equivalent to a “‘probability requirement,' . . . it asks for more than a sheer possibility that a defendant has acted unlawfully.” Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 678 (quoting Twombly, 550 U.S. at 556). “[W]here the well-pleaded facts do not permit the court to infer more than the mere possibility of misconduct, the complaint has alleged-but it has not ‘show[n]'-that the pleader is entitled to relief.” Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 679 (quoting Fed.R.Civ.P. 8(a)(2)); see also Hill v. Lappin, 630 F.3d 468, 470-71 (6th Cir. 2010) (holding that the Twombly/Iqbal plausibility standard applies to dismissals of prisoner cases on initial review under 28 U.S.C. §§ 1915A(b)(1) and 1915(e)(2)(B)(i)).

         To state a claim under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, a plaintiff must allege the violation of a right secured by the federal Constitution or laws and must show that the deprivation was committed by a person acting under color of state law. West v. Atkins, 487 U.S. 42, 48 (1988); Street v. Corr. Corp. of Am., 102 F.3d 810, 814 (6th Cir. 1996). Because § 1983 is a method for vindicating federal rights, not a source of substantive rights itself, the first step in an action under § 1983 is to identify the specific constitutional right allegedly infringed. Albright v. Oliver, 510 U.S. 266, 271 (1994).

         III. Due Process Violation

         Plaintiff's claim that he was removed from inmate worker status and caused to forfeit his 31-day sentence reduction without a hearing is a claim that he was denied his due process rights in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Fourteenth Amendment protects an individual from deprivation of life, liberty or property, without due process of law.” Bazetta v. McGinnis, 430 F.3d 795, 801 (6th Cir. 2005). To establish a Fourteenth Amendment procedural due process violation, a plaintiff must show that one of these interests is at stake. Wilkinson v. Austin, 545 U.S. 209, 221 (2005). Analysis of a procedural due process claim involves two steps: “[T]he first asks whether there exists a liberty or property interest which has been ...


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